[Culture] Spring Festival/ Chinese New Year

The Chinese New year / the Spring Festival comes. According to Chinese Lunar Calindar, the new years eve is Feburary 7th this year, and Feburary 8th is the first day of new year.

It’s a time to say goodbye to the old year and welcome the new year. So the importance of Spring Festival to every Chinese is equal to what Christmas to peoples here. And there are a lot similarities. For example, it’s a time to have a family get-together and enjoy big dinners and a 7-day holiday; and it’s also a big event for family members to celebrate and prepare when a month ahead. Having worked for a whole year, it’s a time to celebrate and enjoy the friuts of work. Let’s see through this vedio to exprence the Spring Festival atmosphere.

Pay attention to Red Evolope, inside is the lucy money, usually gave by the old generation to children. The fire works, dragon dance and lion dance are used to celebrate the new year. Red lanterns and red paper-cutting artworks are used for decorations because Chinese people think red is a warm and enthusiastic color in cold winter.  You can see the big feast, usually fish, chicken, and meat is indispensable. And dumplines (Jiao zi) is the special food for this festival. (This is a photo of dumplines made by me)饺子我和妈妈包

2016 is the year of Monkey. Monkey is one of the Chinese 12 zodiac. They are the rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog and pig. It’s a 12-year mathematical cycle. Here is a short and clear vedio made by The Sydney Morning Herald.

 

Mention about monkey, there is a Monkey King maybe you have heard about.

Monkey King is a literary character in Chinese classic legendary novel “Journey to the West“. In 1986, CCTV produced the TV drama “Journey to the West“, which is still showed on TV today. This novel and this TV drama is known by every Chinese. The image of the main role – Monkey King, played by Liu Xiao Ling Tong (an opera actor speciallize in monkey performances), is the highly praised one.

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This is the latest show of Liu Xiao Ling Tong. He is an artist who devoted all his life in Monkey opera performances. His imitation of monkey is vivid. Although he is 57 year old, he has never give up pratices.

 


Blogging and Numbers. Does it add up?

Blogging. How can we use it in the classroom? How can we get students involved? Is it something that  should be graded? If so, how? How can blogs be integrated into a class that doesn’t involve a lot of writing? And finally how do my students find time to complete their blog posts? These were all questions I had when reading the articles for class this week.

Photo Credit: Enokson via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: Enokson via Compfight cc

I want to focus on the article that I took the most away from this week. Michael Drennan’s article Blogging in the Classroom: why your students should write online provides some great arguments for having students blog. I couldn’t agree more with the rewards outweighing the risks of having students blog. I especially like that plagiarism becomes pretty obsolete. It makes sense right? Why would a student risk plagiarizing when their work is public and can be seen by anyone on the web? The chances of being caught and being labeled as someone who steals the work of someone else. I also think it’s a great way to show student development and a way for students to learn from comments that their peers and others provide them. It’s a great way for them to share their work with someone other than their teacher. It also provides an opportunity for parents to follow along with their blog.

I came across 14 steps to meaningful student blogging and one of the ideas I struggle with is not grading the blogs. I understand why you wouldn’t assign a grade, but my worry is that my students wouldn’t blog if it wasn’t for marks. I guess I have a lot of questions with the whole assessment part of it. How often should students be blogging? If I don’t give them some type of grade/assessment, how do I motivate them to blog? Teaching high school and only seeing students for an hour a day creates another problem of finding the time for it to be done properly.

This leads me to my next problem. Integrating blogging into classes like Accounting and Math. I found a few ideas from different sites. I really like the idea of showcasing student work. Students can use an iPad and capture a screenshot or even take pictures of their notebook to be uploaded to their site. I would ask students to take it a step further and create a video to explain how they solved the problem. Here are five more ways that blogs can be used in a math class. I want to try have students write their own problems to post on their blog for others to try and solve. It might really make students think outside the box and it will also demonstrate their level of understanding.

Photo Credit: bjmccray via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: bjmccray via Compfight cc

If anyone has any suggestions for ways to integrate blogs into a class that doesn’t usually involve a lot of writing, I’d love to hear from you. I’d also love to know if you grade your blog entries or how you assess them.


I feel like I have to comment on my personal blogging experience and some of the connections I made with the other articles this week. Just like Dallas, I was never really too keen on sharing my thoughts in a public space online. I used to feel like no one really cared what I had to say. But the more I blog and share on Twitter, the more connections I make with people who comment, retweet or follow me. It seems the more you share and the more you try to connect with others, the greater your voice becomes. It’s pretty neat to be able to connect with people who you’ve never even met before and know that you will both benefit from the connection by learning from each other.

I can relate to a lot of what Clive Thompson had to say in Why Even the Worst Bloggers Are Making Us Smarter. As Clive states, “when you feel like you are writing to an audience of 0 and suddenly you have an audience of 10 it’s quite something.” I know exactly how that feels. When I first started using Twitter I didn’t feel like anyone was “listening” or like anyone cared. Now that I have over 110 followers I think a lot more about what I am Tweeting and the audience I am reaching out to. I know 110 followers is NOTHING in the grand scheme of things, but I have been adding at least 3 followers per week since class started and I feel like I am gaining some ground giving me a larger audience.

Screen Shot of my Twitter page

Screen Shot of my Twitter page

When we think about who our audience is it changes the way we write. If I am writing an email to a friend it will sound a lot different than an email I write to a colleague or administrator. If I am writing a blog intended for my students it will sound different than one written for my peers. For myself writing is hard. I feel the pressure every time I set out to write a post. Sometimes when I try to just write and forget about who I am writing to it helps more. Most of the time I ask myself why am I writing this? Who am I writing to? Most of the time I am assuming my audience is my classmates and hopefully some other teachers that my blog reached. Understanding our audience and having a purpose for writing will change the way we write. We need to help our students with this process in order to give them the freedom to write and blog successfully.

 

 

 


We think in public..

“The fact that so many of us are writing — sharing our ideas, good and bad, for the world to see — has changed the way we think. Just as we now live in public, so do we think in public”Clive Thompson

The above words from Clive Thompson, really affected me as an individual living in the 21 century and also as a teacher.  In Thompson’s article, he talks about how we are “global culture of avid writers” who are almost always writing for an audience. I personally have never ever thought of myself as a writer.  I have never loved writing essays or creative stories.  But Thompson’s words made me realize that in some sense I do “write”.  Every Facebook status update, Instagram sentence or 140 character tweet is me “writing” my thoughts to the world.   We really do “think in public”.  As I have mentioned before, I am rather quiet in the social media and digital world, I know there are many people who voice their thoughts and opinions online much more than I do.  Even though I choose not to post frequently, I strongly support those that do!  It is an amazing age that we live in!  Freedom of speech takes on a whole new meaning in the 21st century when someone in Canada can blog on  a current issue and know that it can be read by someone on the other side of the world in a matter of seconds!

Clive also discusses how when we post online, on any social media outlet, that we are writing for an audience. A lot more thought goes into writing when you are writing for an audience in comparison to writing in a personal journal.  One of the main reasons I decided to have my students blog for my major project was have them write for a larger audience.  I really enjoyed the research that concluded that students put more effort into their writing when they were writing for someone more than just their teacher.  I am excited to see if my students writing improves from blogging a few times a week!

 

My students will be introduced to their blogs this week.  A huge fear of mine has been whether my 7 year old students will be capable of handling the task of setting up their personal blog and creating a new blog post at least once per week.  I know I need to give them more credit, I do know with proper teaching and encouragement that my student’s blogs can be very successful!

The article, Blogging in the classroom: Why your students should write online,stated that I am not alone in fearing that my students skills and writing might be too weak for a public audience.  Michael Drennan counteracts this point by stating that blogging with students is a great way to show the progression of writing.  My students will be blogging from February to June.  I look forward to seeing an increase in their spelling, sentence formation and use of punctuation over these five short months!

I hope to find  a new love for blogging with students over the next five months.  I truly hope the benefits and successes outweigh the frustrations and that I continue to blog next year as well! Time will tell!

 


Making Connections

Blogging

Photo Credit: filipinooutsourcers via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: filipinooutsourcers via Compfight cc

I have to say the readings from the week changed the way I view blogging. I have never had much interest in blogging mainly because I had no reason to, or so I thought.  As an itinerant teacher it would be tough for me to use a class blog as I teach 200 plus students and most of our families do not have access to the internet to follow a blog. For me to blog solely for the purpose of sharing my opinion never made much sense until now. After reading the the article “Why even the worst bloggers are making us smarter” really put blogging into perspective for me. I have to say I was a little nervous at first of posting my thoughts publicly but am starting to see the benefits of it. Ever since I created my blog, I have connected with other educators who share the same ideas as me, which has given me the confidence to push forward in pursuit of my passion project. For this reason, I have to agree with Clive Thompson when he says “once thinking is public, connections take over”. Having others contribute by offering suggestions and vocalizing their interest has made it easier for me to put a plan in place for my project. Another connection to Thompson’s article was the example of how millions of people died because of a failed network. Just because no one chose to share Ernest Duchesne discovery of penicillin, it would take 31 years for Alexander Flemming to rediscover it without every knowing it was already done. “failed networks kill ideas. But successful ones trigger them”. So, if I don’t share this idea and go after it, then no one will.

 

 

Creating a Like-Minded Audience

Photo Credit: ocean.flynn via Compfight cc

Photo Credit: ocean.flynn via Compfight cc

Being able to express my own beliefs and thoughts through blogging has open the door to connect with other like minded people. Writing for the purpose to connect with every reader is impossible to do. Like Terry Heick mentions in his article “writing everything as if everyone cares is an impossible position to communicate from”. Knowing that readers may not care what I am blogging about does not bother me because I know there are others out there who share similar thoughts and ideas.

 

 


Indoor Lettuce: Week 4 Update

My little lettuce seedlings have been growing for a month now, so here’s a quick update on their progress so far. Here’s my seed-starting set-up (see my previous post for details):

  • Station 1: Natural window light only (South-facing)
  • Station 2: Natural window light only, with a reflective backing
  • Station 3: Same as Station 2, supplemented by a 100-watt CFL bulb
  • Station 4: Artificial light only (from a 100-watt CFL bulb)
Seed-setup Grow-box

My seed-starting set-up. Stations 1-3 are in the window (the cardboard reflectors fold up and are fixed with thumbtacks). Station 4 is a DIY grow box (lid not shown).

Spinach

The spinach is definitely the runt of the litter in my green group. It’s growing verrry sloooowly. I anticipated that the seedlings with more artificial light (station 4) would grow better, but in this case, the window seedlings are doing better than the ones in the grow box. The healthiest ones, albeit a little leggy, are in station 2 with reflected natural light.

Click on the photos to open a slideshow with a larger view:

Spinach in Station 1: Natural window light only (South-facing) Spinach in Station 2: Natural window light only, with a reflective backing Spinach in Station 3: Natural window light only, with a reflective backing, supplemented by a 100-watt CFL bulb Spinach in Station 4: Artificial light only (from a 100-watt CFL bulb)

Spinach (L-R: Stations 1, 2, 3, and 4)

The ones in the grow box (station 4) seem to be regressing and the soil has a green ‘haze’ to it, which I believe is some form of algae. Not good. I’m thinking I either kept the soil too wet, or there’s not enough air circulation in the plastic tote box. I should probably discard these as they seem to be dying, and I don’t want the problem to spread to the other seedlings in the box.

Lessons learned: Improve soil drainage for next time and maybe add a small fan inside the grow box for better air circulation.

Romaine

I seeded the romaine more densely than the others, and it’s growing more quickly than the other crops. As you can see below, the window seedlings look rather pathetic. The more supplemental light they get, the bigger and healthier the leaves are. The leaves from the grow box (station 4) are about three times bigger than the ones getting only natural light (station 1).

Romaine in Station 1: Natural window light only (South-facing) Romaine in Station 2: Natural window light only, with a reflective backing Romaine in Station 3: Natural window light only, with a reflective backing, supplemented by a 100-watt CFL bulb Romaine in Station 4: Artificial light only (from a 100-watt CFL bulb)

Romaine (L-R: Stations 1, 2, 3, and 4)

The grow box romaine are doing so well that I decided to thin them to make room for continued growth. These thinnings made a great first salad with homegrown baby romaine, carrot slices, raisins, grated cheddar cheese, and balsamic vinaigrette!

first_salad

The salad was very yummy, but the thinning process took a toll on the remaining seedlings. Because I seeded these more closely, I had to push the ‘keeper’ seedlings aside to be able to cut the targeted seedlings at soil level, leaving the rest looking a little dishevelled. Hopefully I didn’t break any stems, which would kill the seedling. I’ll find out soon enough.

I was concerned that the romaine seedlings left in the grow box weren’t in enough soil. When I sowed the seeds initially, I had to skimp a bit on the soil because I had a limited supply (the local garden center shuts down for the winter, and the local hardware stores didn’t have any potting mix in stock at that time). So I didn’t have the suggested 4 inches of soil in my container (it was more like 2 inches, which is fine for growing microgreens, but I wanted to see how big the romaine would get, which requires more soil for larger roots). Luckily, I was able to get my hands on another bag of organic seedling mix, and I tried to add some more soil in the empty spaces around the thinned seedlings, making the lot look even more dishevelled. Hopefully a shot of fertilizer will perk them back up again.

Lessons learned: Either seed farther apart next time so that thinning won’t be a big issue, or grow the romaine as microgreens instead. Also, stock up on seedling mix in the fall while it’s still available at the garden center!

Kale

I’ve never grown kale before (or eaten it, for that matter), so I wasn’t sure what to expect with these seedlings. As with the romaine, the grow box kale (station 4) has grown much larger than the seedlings getting only natural light (stations 1 and 2). The leaves on the larger kale seedlings are thicker and tougher, whereas the smaller seedlings in the window have a thinner leaf that looks more tender, but I won’t know which are better eats until I try it. I know these plants get huge when planted out in the garden, so I’m only growing them for baby greens.

Kale in Station 1: Natural window light only (South-facing) Kale in Station 2: Natural window light only, with a reflective backing Kale in Station 3: Natural window light only, with a reflective backing, supplemented by a 100-watt CFL bulb Kale in Station 4: Artificial light only (from a 100-watt CFL bulb)

Kale (L-R: Stations 1, 2, 3, and 4)

You’ll notice these is no picture for station 3. The kale never germinated in that particular container, and I think it may have been overwatered when I sowed the seed and they rotted in the soggy soil.

Lesson learned: Don’t make the seedling mix too wet when sowing seeds, and provide lots of drainage.


Time for the Materials

After last weeks research I decided I needed a few things to start my project. Before going out to purchase all the materials I need. I decided to take a look around my house and ask around. I was able to find a scraper, and a sand block, a paint brush and some plastic to down just from previously painting my bedroom.

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I then decided to ask around to see if I could save on any other supplies. After explaining to my family my project, my brother explained he had some paint stripper I could use. My dad also said he had some old stain that I could practice with.

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At last I decided I needed to go to Home Depot to get the shade of stain that I wanted. While on this shopping trip I could not just simply get what I needed but, I ended up getting some silicon to. I think my next project will be to redo my tub surround.

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After gathering my supplies I am getting excited about trying all of this stuff out. Next week I will begin my trial project. I want to make sure I am not ruining the furniture I want to actually use before I attempt to fix it. Wish me luck!! :)


To blog or not to blog…is that even a question?

I really enjoyed the readings this week about blogging.  I have experimented with blogging over the last 5ish years but would say my hiatuses are longer than my active periods.  Since beginning teaching 4 years ago, I have used a classroom blog to keep families in the loop on our weekly activities.  I have found this is a nice way for me to reflect on what we learned in the week but I have had varying levels of engagement over the years.  I have always had parents tell me that they appreciate the time I take to blog and they enjoy reading about our learnings.  They also appreciate the examples I post of ways to support their child’s learning from home.  To be honest, I have sometimes felt that the parents who I feel need to follow the blog are the ones that aren’t.  This isn’t enough of a frustration for me to stop doing these posts, but it has shifted my communication style slightly.

As well as blogging a couple times a month, I now use Remind to communicate with parents.  I have found the reaches a larger audience, as a reminder text is sent straight to a parent’s phone, notifying them, rather than having to go into our blog to view a post.  This past week I also started a classroom twitter page and within a week being up, we have 54 followers, 13 of which are student’s parents.  I am interested to see if this microblogging will be as or more beneficial than our classroom blog.

This week I connected many points in Clive Thompson’s article, Why Even the Worst Bloggers are Making Us Smarter. Since connecting back to my blog, I struggled with the idea that my thoughts aren’t well-constructed and not necessarily worth sharing.  I have started following some incredible bloggers including George Couros, John Spencer, Ben Gilpin, and Vicki Davis, and when reading their blogs weekly it’s hard not to think my own ideas aren’t up to par.  My ideas always sound great in my head, but I struggled with communicating that same message once writing. But then Thompson suggested,

“Just as we now live in public, so do we think in public.”

What I strive for as a classroom teacher is transparency.  I want my philosophies and teaching to be transparent to my students, families, colleagues, and admin.  I want my students to be open and comfortable willingly sharing their thoughts and ideas.  I want them to feel empowered by sharing their voice and realizing that their idea and writing are worth sharing.  So I must lead by example.  I must starting seeing my own blogging journey as a document of my growth as an educator, just as my students are documenting their growth through our SeeSaw portfolios.

This week I experimented a little, not with blogging with my students, but having them start independently uploading and documenting their learning on our SeeSaw account.  One post I really encourage you to watch is Leah’s journal sharing video.  The prompt was “I am grumpy when…”

Doesn’t she have great voice?

Now before giving this assignment, I had briefly mentioned that student writing is something we can start posting on SeeSaw but encouraged students to share work that they are especially proud of.  I reminded students that we are sharing this work on a global scale, so we should make it our very best work.  Student writing improved because students were writing for an audience other than just myself.  Thompson suggested something called the audience effect, which means our performance improves when we know we have an audience following our work.  I saw a significant increase in engagement and quality when my students had this platform to share their writing and reading.

My students haven’t started blogging or even commenting on each other’s SeeSaw posts yet.  We also haven’t invited parents to view our SeeSaw e-portfolios yet (that’s on this week’s agenda!) but I am only imagine that growth will continue when this larger audience is created.

A hesitation that I have with students blogging is that they will become so engaged with blogging that they will no longer show interest in journaling and other forms of writing.  My first thought is that their little notes, cards to Mom and Dad, and friendly letters will be replaced with blog posts, e-cards, and youtube videos.  I want to encourage blogging with my students but also want to enforce the importance of proper letter formation through printing and sharing ideas in a variety of ways.  I know that because I am working with 21st century learners maybe I need to realize and come to grips that communication is just shifting, but a little part of me wonders if Mom who doesn’t receive a hand-written Mother’s Day poem will be a little heartbroken with this shift?  Can we have a balance?  I sure hope so.

I considered one other perspective this week after viewing this video,

Right now, I see my students creating better work with an expanded audience.  I feel like maybe as children grow older, John Spencer’s idea of writing for an audience of one will be more relevant.  So I ask of you, do you find students are more creative and empowered with an audience of one, several, or globally?

Deconstructing/Reconstructing My Pedagogy: Learning from the Paradox

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Photo Credit: ConnectIrmeli via Compfight cc

The paradox remains glaringly bright: the more I learn, the less I know…and from what I’m learning about connectivism, that will never really stop. This to and fro motion signifies to me that I need to use this paradox to catalyze the need to keep undo some parts of my pedagogy and reconstruct it to where my learners are in our current sociocultural paradigm. After marinating in Howard Rheingold’s Attention, and other 21st-Century Social Medias the past few days, I couldn’t help but start challenging my own understanding of social media and the need for media literacies (attention, participation, collaboration, network awareness, critical consumption) as a digital culture in our classrooms. 

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Photo Credit: ransomtech via Compfight cc

Although I’ve been an active consumer of and, generously speaking, a producer on social media, I’ve never really used social media in my classroom until starting this class (my PLN has really pushed me out of my comfort zone). Like I said in my previous post, I’ve known how to use technology in the classroom but I’ve never understood why. Truthfully, I was fearful of not really being able to monitor a student’s appropriate use and management of time. Therefore, I defaulted to fostering technical skills but have since learned that it’s more than skills, rather a place where we can establish multiple communities of networked learning–the richer the network, the better opportunity there is for us to learn. Furthermore and as discussed in the video below on the networked student, if we want to better prepare our students to be lifelong learners who can be more creative in solving the world’s complex problems, then we need to be guides to show them how to communicate and build a network of knowledge sharing, why and how to start interrogating what is quality information vs. propaganda, and methods of sorting/analyzing the swamp of information.  

 

“When it comes to social media, knowing how to post a video or download a podcast—technology-centric encoding and decoding skills—is not enough. Access to many media empowers only those who know how to use them. We need to go beyond skills and technologies. We need to think in terms of literacies. And we need to expand our thinking of digital skills or information literacies to include social media literacies.” –Rheingold

The role of the teacher and teaching needs to change as the landscape has changed. We are no longer the content holders waiting to transmit our knowledge. If you think that I have more answers or solutions regarding what I need to do differently because of this class, you’re wrong. I am faced with even more questions that I kept asking myself this week (enough to lose sleep) to disrupt what I’ve been doing to start changing my praxis. Mainly, I’ve been continually asking what will be the barriers that I face as many of my students don’t have access to technology and social media at home, along with a community that presents an illiteracy in what it means to be a part of this digital culture. How could I garner community support without community literacy? Doesn’t it take a village to raise a digital leader and citizen? How am I ever going to know if my students can swim if I don’t let them go in the water (with regards to using social media in my classroom and what they’re capable of)? Would I like to be a learner in my classroom and if not what can I start doing now to establish this? Connectivism is more than an architecture but a philosophy to which an educator, like Genna from my PLN, subscribes to. It’s a flexible and reflective student-centered practice that is critical in order to begin teaching these media literacies.


How does an audience affect performance?

Blogs, Twitter, Facebook, emails,even YouTube, all offer an outlet and an audience for people to communicate with- if you have a network of people ‘listening’.  But what if you don’t?

“Failed networks kill ideas, but successful ones trigger them.” -Clive Thompson

When considering our audience and performance, I would be remiss to not consider Marshall McLuhan‘s theory: The Medium is the Message.  The change in the way we communicate (in online spaces) affects the way our ‘viewers’ interpret what we are saying.

Would Shakespeare’s work such as Romeo and Juliet be so profound if it was never enacted upon again, and again through different mediums?

If we did not live in the current technology age- how many people would we be writing and performing for?  I’m sure today’s classroom would continue to look as it did during my schooling career.  The audience would be limited to my teacher, unless it was speech writing season, in which my classmates might hear what I had to say if I had the ‘top’ arguments in my class.

How are students motivated by the possibility of countless people reading their thoughts and ideas?  To me, more importantly, what happens when the aspiring writers/bloggers/vloggers open themselves up to the world- and they are met with silence?

According to Heick perhaps convincing students that people beyond our personal spheres (mothers and teachers) are interested in their writing, leads to under developed, selfish writers.  I do much prefer Michael Drennan’s perspective that offering student’s a platform to share their voices help to improve their writing.  Additionally, Clive Thompson’s perspective mirror’s this concept nicely. I would like to believe that when we give our student’s a platform to have a voice, that they rise up to the occasion and have a ‘purpose’ for their work.

How do you think the content of our student’s writing adapt because of the potential audience?

students-99506_1920
via pixabay CCO public domain

How does an audience affect performance?

Blogs, Twitter, Facebook, emails,even YouTube, all offer an outlet and an audience for people to communicate with- if you have a network of people ‘listening’.  But what if you don’t?

“Failed networks kill ideas, but successful ones trigger them.” -Clive Thompson

When considering our audience and performance, I would be remiss to not consider Marshall McLuhan‘s theory: The Medium is the Message.  The change in the way we communicate (in online spaces) affects the way our ‘viewers’ interpret what we are saying.

Would Shakespeare’s work such as Romeo and Juliet be so profound if it was never enacted upon again, and again through different mediums?

If we did not live in the current technology age- how many people would we be writing and performing for?  I’m sure today’s classroom would continue to look as it did during my schooling career.  The audience would be limited to my teacher, unless it was speech writing season, in which my classmates might hear what I had to say if I had the ‘top’ arguments in my class.

How are students motivated by the possibility of countless people reading their thoughts and ideas?  To me, more importantly, what happens when the aspiring writers/bloggers/vloggers open themselves up to the world- and they are met with silence?

According to Heick perhaps convincing students that people beyond our personal spheres (mothers and teachers) are interested in their writing, leads to under developed, selfish writers.  I do much prefer Michael Drennan’s perspective that offering student’s a platform to share their voices help to improve their writing.  Additionally, Clive Thompson’s perspective mirror’s this concept nicely. I would like to believe that when we give our student’s a platform to have a voice, that they rise up to the occasion and have a ‘purpose’ for their work.

How do you think the content of our student’s writing adapt because of the potential audience?

students-99506_1920
via pixabay CCO public domain